Citation Attack Graph

Sensors | Free Full-Text | Sine-Cosine-Adopted African Vultures Optimization with Ensemble Autoencoder-Based Intrusion Detection for Cybersecurity in CPS Environment (

Presekal et al. [17] developed a new technique for online cyberattack awareness. This technique improves the power grid resilience and assists the power system operators during localization and identification processes of the active attack locations in the Operational Technology (OT) network on a real-time basis. The presented technique used a hybrid DL mechanism, i.e., deep convolutional network with Graph Convolutional LSTM (GC-LSTM), for time-series classification-related AD.

[2306.14697] A Survey of Software-Defined Smart Grid Networks: Security Threats and Defense Techniques (

Spoofing, Sniffing, and Message Relay [25]–[28]

Effective injection of adversarial botnet attacks in IoT ecosystem using evolutionary computing – Bhale – Internet Technology Letters – Wiley Online Library

 A. Presekal et al.11 developed a hybrid deep learning method for making an attack graph for cyber-physical power systems (CPS). It helps secure CPS by identifying possible cyberattacks and weak spots.

A Context-Aware Sdn/Nfv-Enabled Communication Framework for Iot-Based Smart Grids by Agrippina Mwangi, Rishikesh Sahay, Elena Fumagalli, Mikkel Peter Sidoroff Gryning, Madeleine Gibescu :: SSRN

(iii) trigger loss of control over the energy system through the distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack (active attack) [54].

Novel approaches to mitigate cybersecurity threats are being developed considering the cost (both financial and physical) of dealing with cybersecurity attacks in the power system domain. Presekal et al.,[54] develop an attack graph model for cyber-physical power systems using hybrid deep learning to mitigate cyber threats on a digital substation level.

Spatio-Temporal Deep Graph Network for Event Detection, Localization and Classification in Cyber-Physical Electric Distribution System

A similar approach for a general cyber-physical power system combining graph CNN for network topology and LSTM for temporal learning can be found in [12].

Anomaly Detection in Time Series: Current Focus and Future Challenges

Additionally, Electrical power grids are vulnerable to cyber-attacks, existing attack detection methods are limited so to tackle Graph Convolutional Long Short-Term Memory (GC-LSTM) with a deep convolution network has been proposed to further improve time series classification and analysis with respect to anomaly detection and attack graph models [82].

NVIDIA Philosophy

Why was the CEO of $1T Nvidia shopping at a night market in Taipei?

He flew there to give a commencement speech at NTU.

Here are the top 12 insights from Jensen’s speech:

1. We are at the beginning of a major technological era: “Like PC, internet, mobile and cloud, but AI is far more fundamental.”

2. AI will create new jobs that didn’t exist before: “Like prompt engineering, AI Factory ops, and AI safety engineers.”

3. AI will change every job: “Supercharging the performance of programmers, designers, artists, marketers, and manufacturing planners.”

4. You must learn to take advantage of AI: “While some worry AI may take their jobs, someone who is expert with AI will.”

5. Overall, AI software has opened multi-trillion dollar opportunities: “The world was simpler when I graduated college.”

6. Nvidia’s purpose: “To help the Einstein and DaVinci’s of our time do their life’s work.”

7. Nvidia almost died in its first years: Jensen had to call the CEO of Sega and say “that they had to find another partner but I needed Sega to pay us in whole or Nvidia would be out of business.”

8. Humility abut his weakness led to his success: Flying to Taiwan and working with Morris Chang on production (where Nvidia was weak) enabled their position today 25 years later.

9. Nvidia had to endure years of $1B market cap: Because they were investing in CUDA that created the base for the applications on top of GPUs like blockchain and AI.

10. Alexnet, trained on GPUs of Nvidia, in 2012 started the big bang of AI: Nvidia risked everything by doubling down on it and deep learning.

11. Sacrificing the profitable mobile market setup the AI opportunity: Nvidia had to leave a profitable business to focus on AI and robotics.

12. We are the starting line of AI: “Every industry will be revolutionized…Run after it.”

And why was he at the night market?

“Either you are running for food, or you are… food.”

Leadership Style

Leadership styles around the world.

❶ British managers are diplomatic, casual, helpful, willing to compromise, and seeking to be fair, though they can be ruthless when necessary. Unfortunately, their adherence to tradition can result in a failure to comprehend differing values in others.

❷ American managers are assertive, aggressive, goal and action oriented, confident, vigorous, optimistic, and ready for change. They are capable of teamwork and corporate spirit, but they value individual freedom and their first interest is furthering their own career.

❸ French managers tend to be autocratic and paternalistic, with an impressive grasp of the many issues facing their company. Opinions of experienced middle managers and technical staff may be dismissed.

❹ Swedish management is decentralized and democratic. The rationale is that better informed employees are more motivated and perform better. The drawback is that decisions can be delayed.

❺ German managers strive to create a perfect system. There is a clear chain of command in each department and information and instructions are passed down from the top. Nonetheless, considerable value is placed on consensus.

❻ East Asian countries tend to have a Confucian hierarchy, where the group is sacred and leaders are seen as benevolent.

❼ In Latin and Arab countries, authority is concentrated in the chief executive, and family relations are very important, with ubiquitous nepotism. Different cultures can have radically different leadership styles, and international organizations would do well to understand them.

From “When Cultures Collide” book, by Richard D. Lewis (4th edition).