Leadership styles around the world.
❶ British managers are diplomatic, casual, helpful, willing to compromise, and seeking to be fair, though they can be ruthless when necessary. Unfortunately, their adherence to tradition can result in a failure to comprehend differing values in others.
❷ American managers are assertive, aggressive, goal and action oriented, confident, vigorous, optimistic, and ready for change. They are capable of teamwork and corporate spirit, but they value individual freedom and their first interest is furthering their own career.
❸ French managers tend to be autocratic and paternalistic, with an impressive grasp of the many issues facing their company. Opinions of experienced middle managers and technical staff may be dismissed.
❹ Swedish management is decentralized and democratic. The rationale is that better informed employees are more motivated and perform better. The drawback is that decisions can be delayed.
❺ German managers strive to create a perfect system. There is a clear chain of command in each department and information and instructions are passed down from the top. Nonetheless, considerable value is placed on consensus.
❻ East Asian countries tend to have a Confucian hierarchy, where the group is sacred and leaders are seen as benevolent.
❼ In Latin and Arab countries, authority is concentrated in the chief executive, and family relations are very important, with ubiquitous nepotism. Different cultures can have radically different leadership styles, and international organizations would do well to understand them.
From “When Cultures Collide” book, by Richard D. Lewis (4th edition).